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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10990/787

Supervisore afferente all'Università: CONTE, LANFRANCO
Titolo: Development and implementation of stable isotope ratio analysis in bulk products and sub-components to ensure food traceability
Abstract (in inglese): Nowadays, objective assessment of food authenticity has become of paramount importance with an increasing demand for analytical methods able to provide proof of origin and prevent food adulteration. In order to achieve this scope, the European Union has reinforced control activities and investigated new markers able to support food characterisation and geographical traceability. Stable isotope ratio analysis of so-called bioelements such as hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur has been applied since the 1990s for food authenticity control of different premium products. Application of isotopic composition is based on evidence that isotopic signature is affected by various environmental factors such as photosynthetic and nitrogen cycles, pedological characteristics of soils, agricultural practices, botanical origin, geographical origin and climatic or hydrological conditions. In this study, isotope ratio mass spectrometry methods were developed to characterise and determine the authenticity of cereal crops, pasta, wine, balsamic vinegar, oenological tannins and extra-virgin olive oils. In particular, the isotopic variability measured along the Italian production chain of pasta allowed good discrimination in relation to geographical provenance. δ2H, δ18O and δ13C were shown to be significantly correlated to geographical factors (e.g. longitude), whereas δ15N and δ34S were affected by geology and fertilization practices. The measurement of amino acid δ15N and δ13C values improved the discrimination between conventional and organic wheat compared to stable isotope ratio analysis of bulk. Variability of δ15N value was checked along the entire oenological chain for the first time. The study included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process using different types of yeast, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. Despite nitrogen isotope fractionation observed from soil to wine through plant, the δ15N value of proline conserves the nitrogen isotopic fingerprint of the growing soil and can therefore be used as additional isotopic marker to trace the geographical origin of wine. The same analytical approach, when applied to commercial tannins samples, made it possible to characterise them based on the botanical origin. The δ13C values were shown to be significantly more negative in tannins from grapes, tea and acacia and less negative in tannins from oak. Furthermore, stable isotope ratios δ2H, δ13C of acetic acid and δ18O of water were investigated in “aceto balsamico di Modena IGP” (ABM) samples. No isotopic variation was observed along production chain of ABM, providing experimental evidence that such analytical parameters, used routinarely for wine, can be used also for ABM in authenticity studies. Finally, δ2H, δ13C and δ18O of extra-virgin olive oils were analysed in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in fatty acids. The results showed that bulk analysis was able to discriminate between some different countries on the basis of specific geo-climatic conditions. Moreover, both δ13C and δ2H values of main fatty acids allowed a good discrimination between European and non-European extra-virgin olive oils. To conclude the methods developed for the specific considered commodities can be proposed as suitable tools for the detection of mislabelling and for consumer protection, demonstrating that isotopic analysis can effectively contribute towards distinguishing the authenticity of commercial samples
Parole chiave: IRMS; GC-C/Py-IRMS; Food; Origin; Traceability; Authenticity
MIUR : Settore CHIM/10 - Chimica Degli Alimenti
Lingua: eng
Data: 28-mar-2017
Corso di dottorato: Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze degli alimenti
Ciclo di dottorato: 29
Università di conseguimento titolo: Università degli Studi di Udine
Luogo di discussione: Udine
Altre informazioni: Co-supervisore: Federica Camin - Struttura di aggregazione: Fondazione Edmund Mach (San Michele all'Adige - Trento)
Citazione: PAOLINI, M. Development and implementation of stable isotope ratio analysis in bulk products and sub-components to ensure food traceability. (Doctoral Thesis, Università degli Studi di Udine, 2017).
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