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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10990/797

Autori: Papaiz, Andrea
Supervisore afferente all'Università: TONELLO, ANDREA
Titolo: Opportunistic Angle of Arrival Estimation in Impaired Scenarios
Abstract (in inglese): This work if focused on the analysis and the development of Angle of Arrival (AoA) radio localization methods. The radio positioning system considered is constituted by a radio source and by a receiving array of antennas. The positioning algorithms treated in this work are designed to have a passive and opportunistic approach. The opportunistic attribute implies that the radio localization algorithms are designed to provide the AoA estimation with nearly-zero information on the transmitted signals. No training sequences or waveforms custom designed for localization are taken into account. The localization is termed passive since there is no collaboration between the transmitter and the receiver during the localization process. Then, the algorithms treated in this work are designed to eavesdrop already existing communication signals and to locate their radio source with nearly-zero knowledge of the signal and without the collaboration of the transmitting node. First of all, AoA radio localization algorithms can be classified in terms of involved signals (narrowband or broadband), antenna array pattern (L-shaped, circular, etc.), signal structure (sinusoidal, training sequences, etc.), Differential Time of Arrival (D-ToA) / Differential Phase of Arrival (D-PoA) and collaborative/non collaborative. Than, the most detrimental effects for radio communications are treated: the multipath (MP) channels and the impaired hardware. A geometric model for the MP is analysed and implemented to test the robustness of the proposed methods. The effects of MP on the received signals statistics from the AoA estimation point-of-view are discussed. The hardware impairments for the most common components are introduced and their effects in the AoA estimation process are analysed. Two novel algorithms that exploits the AoA from signal snapshots acquired sequentially with a time division approach are presented. The acquired signals are QAM waveforms eavesdropped from a pre-existing communication. The proposed methods, namely Constellation Statistical Pattern IDentification and Overlap (CSP-IDO) and Bidimensional CSP-IDO (BCID), exploit the probability density function (pdf) of the received signals to obtain the D-PoA. Both CSP-IDO and BCID use the statistical pattern of received signals exploiting the transmitter statistical signature. Since the presence of hardware impairments modify the statistical pattern of the received signals, CSP-IDO and BCID are able to exploit it to improve the performance with respect to (w.r.t.) the ideal case. Since the proposed methods can be used with a switched antenna architecture they are implementable with a reduced hardware contrariwise to synchronous methods like MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) that are not applicable. Then, two iterative AoA estimation algorithms for the dynamic tracking of moving radio sources are implemented. Statistical methods, namely PF, are used to implement the iterative tracking of the AoA from D-PoA measures in two different scenarios: automotive and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The AoA tracking of an electric car signalling with a IEEE 802.11p-like standard is implemented using a test-bed and real measures elaborated with a the proposed Particle Swarm Adaptive Scattering (PSAS) algorithm. The tracking of a UAV moving in the 3D space is investigated emulating the UAV trajectory using the proposed Confined Area Random Aerial Trajectory Emulator (CARATE) algorithm.
Parole chiave: Localization; Positioning; AoA; DoA; Angle of arrival; Direction of arrival; Hardware impairments; Radio localization; Particle filtering; CARATE; CSP-IDO; BCID; PSAS
MIUR : Settore ING-INF/03 - Telecomunicazioni
Lingua: eng
Data: 23-mar-2017
Corso di dottorato: Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione
Ciclo di dottorato: 29
Università di conseguimento titolo: Università degli Studi di Udine
Luogo di discussione: Udine
Citazione: Papaiz, A. Opportunistic Angle of Arrival Estimation in Impaired Scenarios. (Doctoral Thesis, Università degli Studi di Udine, 2017).
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